He began his career as a doctor, specialising in work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when his interests first turned to psychology, and during ten years of clinical work in Vienna he developed the practice of what he called ""psychoanalysis"". This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an investigation of the workings of the mind in general, both ill or healthy. Freud demonstrated the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions.
Freud's ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but have also influenced the entire intellectual climate of the last century. Our customers have not yet reviewed this title.
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Gestalt Therapy. Grief and Bereavement. Subjects were then debriefed and given course credit and referral information about the campus counseling center. Preliminary Analyses. Means for Depth were within a standard deviation of the client means presented by Stiles and Snow for the other dream and own event conditions, but the mean for the own dream condition was more than one standard deviation above the client mean reported by Stiles and Snow.
The Interpretation of Dreams | Study Guide
Thus, the own dream condition was viewed as being of higher quality than ongoing therapy, with the other conditions being viewed as of equivalent quality. Correlations between the dependent variables are shown in Table II using a. Table II. No significant main effects or interactions were found for any of the measures. Post hoc univariate tests, with a Bonferroni adjustment to the alpha of.
No differences were found for condition on the question, "How much did you talk about recent events during this session? This was not surprising in that the Hill et al. In preparation model stresses relating dreams to recent events. For each analysis, separate contrasts were conducted to answer the two questions in this study. In the first contrast, the own dream condition was compared to the other dream and own event conditions to answer the question about the effects of the interpretation process.
The interpretation of Freud
In the second contrast, the own dream condition was compared to the other dream condition to test for the effects of projection. A Bonferroni adjustment to the alpha of. For Positive and Negative Emotionality, neither contrast was significant. Dreams often enable persons to think about themselves in ways that they would not be able to otherwise. Not only was the own dream interpretation condition higher on the Depth Scale than the other two conditions, but it was standard deviation higher than the norms for clients in ongoing therapy.
Thus, subjects seemed to feel that interpreting their dreams provided them with a deep and valuable experience. The findings of the value of dreams supports the work by Cartwright, Tipton, and Wicklund , who found that discussion of dreams reported during the night in a sleep laboratory was beneficial as a preparation for clients who were at high risk for dropping out of psychotherapy. Thus, the mere act of projection could not explain why subjects got something out of the session.
Dreams may have provided information about unconscious or waking conflicts that needed to be examined. In doing the sessions, we noticed big differences in the responsiveness of subjects to all three conditions.
Some subjects could get involved in the condition they were assigned to and use it productively. When asked to bring in their own dream or a recent event or to imagine that another person's dream was their own, these subjects produced vivid imagery and seemed curious, insightful, motivated, and eager to learn more about themselves. Others seemed to have more difficulty getting involved in the condition to which they were assigned. Some did not have a very vivid dream or event to report. We suspect that subject responsiveness to interpretation of any kind has an influence. In terms of limitations, we should stress that these subjects were seeking extra credit points and were not clients seeking help with significant life crises.
Real clients might have been more motivated and had a greater intensity of dream content. Of course real clients might also have had a greater projection ability and a greater intensity of event content. Such questions need to be addressed in actual ongoing therapy. Nor did we test other approaches to dream interpretation, such as experiential therapy e. Similarly, more than one session of dream interpretation might have produced more dramatic differences on the measures. A good therapeutic relationship may potentiate the effects of dream interpretation.
We encourage more research on the effects of dream interpretation, particularly within the context of ongoing therapy. We especially encourage research on the components of dream interpretation, such as the effects of association, relating dreams to waking conflicts, interpretation, and action initiatives. As in therapy research in general, we need to go beyond looking at entire treatment packages and examine specific helpful interventions and the mechanisms of change.
Further, we need to examine whether interpreting different kinds of dreams pleasant dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares lead to different outcomes. Finally, we need to examine variables that predict who is most likely to profit from dream interpretation. O'Grady in consulting about data analysis. We thank Robert Coursey for his comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.
Blumberg, S. Affective and cognitive characteristics of depression in and year-old children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, Discriminating patterns of emotions in and year-old children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, Cartwright, R. Crisis dreaming: Using your dreams to solve your problems. New York: Harper Collins.
Focusing on dreams: A preparation program for psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, Cavenar, J. The dream as a signal for termination. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 24, Cogar, M. Examining the effects of brief individual dream interpretation. Dreaming, 2, Enright, J. An introduction to Gestalt techniques. Fagan and I. Shepherd Eds. Gestalt therapy now pp. New York: Harper and Row. Falk, D. The effectiveness of dream interpretation groups with divorcing women. Finke, J. Dream work in client-centered psychotherapy.
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